About me


mekoala2I began my MRC Population Health Fellowship at Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) in August 2015, working in collaboration with Professor Russ Stothard and Professor Steve Torr. Prior to this, I was an postdoctoral researcher at the Filarial Programme Support Unit (formerly the Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases) at LSTM, starting this role in January 2012. A few more details can be found on my LSTM staff profile here.

Education

My formal training is in spatial statistics, and my academic journey began at the University of Bath where I completed a BSc in Mathematical Sciences (2001-2005), which was followed by an MSc in Medical Statistics at Lancaster University (2006-2007) and culminated in a PhD in spatial epidemiology (2007-2012) at CHICAS at Lancaster Univeristy, supervised by Professor Peter Diggle. It was also during these years that my interests in tropical medicine developed, both through my research on meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and the mapping of Loa loa prevalence in West Africa, and several personal overseas trips where I was able to experience rural Africa first-hand.

Research Interests

My current research interests lie in spatial statistics, geographical information systems (GIS), satellite imagery processing, mobile technology and their health applications (mhealth) and citizen science . In addition to the research I am undertaken as part of the FOCAL-NTDs project, whilst working in FPSU I also developed an SMS-based data reporting system for lymphatic filariasis patients (in collaboration with my husband, Andrew Molineux) called MeasureSMS. Since its initial MeasureSMS pilot in Malawi and Ghana in 2014, to date (June 2016) it has now been implemented in seven countries, and continues to be used to quantify the burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity and assist in morbidity management planning.

Teaching

As well as teaching on the University of Liverpool’s BSc in Tropical Disease Biology and various LSTM MSc programmes, I also have taught spatial statistics at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (AIMS), Tanzania. AIMS is a pan-African network of centres of excellence for postgraduate mathematical sciences with centres in South Africa, Senegal, Ghana, Cameroon and Tanzania, and relies upon volunteers to deliver courses and supervise projects. More information on AIMS, and how it’s being supported by the Royal Statistical Society can be found here, including how you can help.

Public Engagement

I am a STEM Ambassador (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths), and have delivered presentations and workshops at schools in the Merseyside area to promote statistics, and the myriad of career paths it can lead to, with a particular focus in public health. I also have a twitter account (@mapping NTDs), and a blog that I post to from time to time.

Publications

2017

  • M. C. Stanton, M. Adriko, M. Arinaitwe, A. Howell, J. Davies, G. Allison, J. E. LaCourse, E. Muheki, N. B. Kabatereine, and R. J. Stothard, “Intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda at high altitude (\textgreater1400 m): malacological and epidemiological surveys on Mount Elgon and in Fort Portal crater lakes reveal extra preventive chemotherapy needs,” Infectious diseases of poverty, vol. 6, iss. 34, 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2017,
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C. and Adriko, Moses and Arinaitwe, Moses and Howell, Alison and Davies, Juliet and Allison, Gillian and LaCourse, E. James and Muheki, Edridah and Kabatereine, Narcis B. and Stothard, J. Russell},
    journal = {Infectious Diseases of Poverty},
    number = {34},
    title = {{Intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda at high altitude ({\textgreater}1400 m): malacological and epidemiological surveys on Mount Elgon and in Fort Portal crater lakes reveal extra preventive chemotherapy needs}},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2017}
    }
  • J. Stothard, S. Campbell, M. Osei-Atweneboana, M. Stanton, N. Biritwum, D. Rollinson, D. {Eloundou Ombede}, and L. {Tchuem Tchuenté}, “Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: Towards developing an appropriate environmental surveillance framework,” Infectious diseases of poverty, vol. 6, iss. 10, 2017.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stothard2017,
    author = {Stothard, JR and Campbell, SJ and Osei-Atweneboana, MY and Stanton, MC and Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo and Rollinson, D and {Eloundou Ombede}, DR and {Tchuem Tchuent{\'{e}}}, Louis-Albert},
    journal = {Infectious Diseases of Poverty},
    number = {10},
    title = {{Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: Towards developing an appropriate environmental surveillance framework}},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2017}
    }

2016

  • [DOI] H. Al-Shehri, M. C. Stanton, J. E. LaCourse, A. Atuhaire, M. Arinaitwe, A. Wamboko, M. Adriko, N. B. Kabatereine, and R. J. Stothard, “An extensive burden of giardiasis associated with intestinal schistosomiasis and anaemia in school children on the shoreline of Lake Albert, Uganda,” Transactions of the royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. 110, iss. 10, pp. 597-603, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Al-Shehri2016,
    author = {Al-Shehri, Hajri and Stanton, Michelle C. and LaCourse, James E. and Atuhaire, Aaron and Arinaitwe, Moses and Wamboko, Aida and Adriko, Moses and Kabatereine, Narcis B. and Stothard, J. Russell},
    doi = {10.1093/trstmh/trw072},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Al-Shehri et al. - 2016 - An extensive burden of giardiasis associated with intestinal schistosomiasis and anaemia in school children on.pdf:pdf},
    issn = {0035-9203},
    journal = {Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene},
    keywords = {anemia,child,coinfection,dna,fingers,giardia,giardiasis,hygiene,infection,intestines,malaria,parasitic diseases,patents,polymerase chain reaction,poverty,puncture wound,rapid screening test,sanitation,schistosomiasis,school-age child,stool specimen,uganda},
    month = {oct},
    number = {10},
    pages = {597--603},
    publisher = {Oxford University Press},
    title = {{An extensive burden of giardiasis associated with intestinal schistosomiasis and anaemia in school children on the shoreline of Lake Albert, Uganda}},
    url = {https://academic.oup.com/trstmh/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/trstmh/trw072},
    volume = {110},
    year = {2016}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, A. Best, M. Cliffe, L. Kelly-Hope, N. Biritwum, L. Batsa, and A. Debrah, “Situational analysis of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in Ahanta West District of Ghana.,” Tropical medicine & international health : tm & ih, vol. 21, iss. 2, pp. 236-44, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2016a,
    abstract = {OBJECTIVES Situational analysis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) morbidity and its management in Ahanta West, Ghana, to identify potential barrier to healthcare for LF patients. METHODS Lymphoedema and hydrocoele patients were identified by community health workers from a subset of villages, and were interviewed and participated in focus group discussions to determine their attitudes and practices towards managing their morbidity, and their perceived barriers to accessing care. Local health professionals were also interviewed to obtain their views on the availability of morbidity management services in the district. RESULTS Sixty-two patients (34 lymphoedema and 28 hydrocoeles) and 13 local health professionals were included in the study. Lymphoedema patients predominantly self-managed their conditions, which included washing with soap and water (61.8{\%}), and exercising the affected area (52.9{\%}). Almost 65{\%} of patients had sought medical assistance at some stage, but support was generally limited to receiving tablets (91{\%}). Local health professionals reported rarely seeing lymphoedema patients, citing stigma and lack of provisions to assist patients as a reason for this. Almost half of hydrocoele patients (44{\%}) chose not to seek medical assistance despite the negative impact it had on their lives. Whilst surgery itself is free with national health insurance, 63{\%} those who had not sought treatment stated that indirect costs of surgery (travel costs, loss of earnings, etc.) were the most prohibitive factor to seeking treatment. CONCLUSIONS The information obtained from this study should now be used to guide future morbidity strategies in building a stronger relationship between the local health services and LF patients, to ultimately improve patients' physical, psychological and economic wellbeing.},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Best, Abigail and Cliffe, Matthew and Kelly-Hope, Louise and Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo and Batsa, Linda and Debrah, Alex},
    doi = {10.1111/tmi.12643},
    issn = {1365-3156},
    journal = {Tropical medicine {\&} international health : TM {\&} IH},
    keywords = {Ghana,acceso,access,acc{\`{e}}s,barreras,barriers,barri{\`{e}}res,filariose lymphatique,filariosis linf{\'{a}}tica, manejo de morbilidad,lymphatic filariasis,morbidity management,prise en charge de la morbidit{\'{e}}},
    month = {feb},
    number = {2},
    pages = {236--44},
    pmid = {26584839},
    title = {{Situational analysis of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in Ahanta West District of Ghana.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26584839},
    volume = {21},
    year = {2016}
    }
  • [DOI] A. L. Bustinduy, D. Waterhouse, J. C. de Sousa-Figueiredo, S. A. Roberts, A. Atuhaire, G. J. {Van Dam}, P. L. A. M. Corstjens, J. T. Scott, M. C. Stanton, N. B. Kabatereine, S. Ward, W. W. Hope, and R. J. Stothard, “Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Higher Dosages Are Required for Maximal Efficacy,” Mbio, vol. 7, iss. 4, p. e00227–16, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Bustinduy2016,
    abstract = {{\textless}p{\textgreater} Each year, millions of African children receive praziquantel (PZQ) by mass drug administration (MDA) to treat schistosomiasis at a standard single dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, a direct extrapolation from studies of adults. A higher dose of 60 mg/kg is also acceptable for refractory cases. We conducted the first PZQ pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study in young children comparing dosing. Sixty Ugandan children aged 3 to 8 years old with egg patent {\textless}italic{\textgreater}Schistosoma mansoni{\textless}/italic{\textgreater} received PZQ at either 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg. PK parameters of PZQ racemate and enantiomers ( {\textless}italic{\textgreater}R{\textless}/italic{\textgreater} and {\textless}italic{\textgreater}S{\textless}/italic{\textgreater} ) were quantified. PD outcomes were assessed by standard fecal egg counts and novel schistosome-specific serum (circulating anodic antigen [CAA]) and urine (circulating cathodic antigen [CCA]) antigen assays. Population PK and PD analyses were performed to estimate drug exposure in individual children, and the relationship between drug exposure and parasitological cure was estimated using logistic regression. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify better, future dosing regimens. There was marked PK variability between children, but the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of PZQ was strongly predictive of the parasitological cure rate (CR). Although no child achieved antigenic cure, which is suggestive of an important residual adult worm burden, higher AUC was associated with greater CAA antigenic decline at 24 days. To optimize the performance of PZQ, analysis of our simulations suggest that higher doses ({\textgreater}60 mg/kg) are needed, particularly in smaller children. {\textless}/p{\textgreater}},
    author = {Bustinduy, Amaya L. and Waterhouse, David and de Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C. and Roberts, Stephen A. and Atuhaire, Aaron and {Van Dam}, Govert J. and Corstjens, Paul L. A. M. and Scott, Janet T. and Stanton, Michelle C. and Kabatereine, Narcis B. and Ward, Stephen and Hope, William W. and Stothard, J. Russell},
    doi = {10.1128/mBio.00227-16},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Bustinduy et al. - 2016 - Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistoso.pdf:pdf},
    issn = {2150-7511},
    journal = {mBio},
    month = {sep},
    number = {4},
    pages = {e00227--16},
    publisher = {American Society for Microbiology},
    title = {{Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Higher Dosages Are Required for Maximal Efficacy}},
    url = {http://mbio.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mBio.00227-16},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2016}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, A. Molineux, C. Mackenzie, and L. Kelly-Hope, “Mobile Technology for Empowering Health Workers in Underserved Communities: New Approaches to Facilitate the Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases,” Jmir public health and surveillance, vol. 2, iss. 1, p. e2, 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2016,
    abstract = {Background: As global mobile phone penetration increases, direct health information communication from hard-to-reach communities is becoming commonplace. Mobile health (mHealth) tools that enable disease control programs to benefit from this information, while simultaneously empowering community members to take control of their own health, are vital to the goal of universal health care. Objective: Our aim was to highlight the development of the Liverpool mHealth Suite (LMS), which has been designed to address this need and improve health services for neglected tropical diseases being targeted for global elimination, such as lymphatic filariasis. Methods: The LMS has two main communication approaches{\&}{\#}8212;short message service and mobile phone apps{\&}{\#}8212;to facilitate real-time mass drug administration (MDA) coverage, reporting patient numbers, managing stock levels of treatment supplies, and exchanging health information to improve the quality of care of those affected. Results: The LMS includes the MeasureSMS-MDA tool to improve drug supplies and MDA coverage rates in real-time (currently being trialed in urban Tanzania); the MeasureSMS-Morbidity tool to map morbidity, including lymphedema and hydrocele cases (initially piloted in rural Malawi and Ghana, then extended to Ethiopia, and scaled up to large urban areas in Bangladesh and Tanzania); the LyMSS-lymphedema management supply system app to improve distribution of treatments (trialed for 6 months in Malawi with positive impacts on health workers and patients); and the HealthFront app to improve education and training (in development with field trials planned). Conclusions: The current success and scale-up of the LMS by many community health workers in rural and urban settings across Africa and Asia highlights the value of this simple and practical suite of tools that empowers local health care workers to contribute to local, national, and global elimination of disease. [JMIR Public Health Surveill 2016;2(1):e2]},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Molineux, Andrew and Mackenzie, Charles and Kelly-Hope, Louise},
    doi = {10.2196/publichealth.5064},
    issn = {2369-2960},
    journal = {JMIR Public Health and Surveillance},
    keywords = {LF,NTDs,SMS,apps,community engagement,elephantiasis,lymphatic filariasis,mhealth,neglected tropical diseases,smartphones},
    language = {en},
    month = {jan},
    number = {1},
    pages = {e2},
    publisher = {JMIR Public Health and Surveillance},
    title = {{Mobile Technology for Empowering Health Workers in Underserved Communities: New Approaches to Facilitate the Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases}},
    url = {http://publichealth.jmir.org/2016/1/e2/},
    volume = {2},
    year = {2016}
    }

2015

  • [DOI] J. D. Charlwood, E. V. E. Tomás, M. Bragança, N. Cuamba, M. Alifrangis, and M. Stanton, “Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique,” Peerj, vol. 3, p. e1370, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Charlwood2015,
    abstract = {{\textless}p{\textgreater} Isolated areas, such as the 2 × 7 km peninsula of Linga Linga in Mozambique, are the places where malaria might be most easily eliminated. Currently available control strategies include long-lasting insecticidal bednets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides (LLINs), rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosis and artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment and these were applied on the peninsula. In 2007, following a census of the population and mapping of 500 households, five annual all-age prevalence surveys were conducted. Information on LLIN use, house construction, and animal ownership was obtained. A spatially structured generalized additive model indicated that malaria risk was greatest towards the northern end of the peninsula and that people living in houses with grass or thatch roofs had a greater risk of malaria than those living in houses with corrugated iron roofs. Incidence peaked nine weeks after rainfall ( {\textless}italic{\textgreater}r{\textless}/italic{\textgreater} {\textless}sup{\textgreater}2{\textless}/sup{\textgreater} = 0.34, {\textless}italic{\textgreater}p{\textless}/italic{\textgreater} = 0.0002). From 2009 incidence was measured at a centrally based project clinic. The proportion of under nine-year-old resident attendees diagnosed with malaria decreased significantly from 48{\%} in 2009, to 35{\%} in 2010 and 25{\%} in 2011. At the same time, there was a shift in the peak age of cases from 1–4 year olds to 5–9 year olds. Nevertheless, in order to further reduce malaria transmission in an area such as Linga Linga, additional vector control measures need to be considered. {\textless}/p{\textgreater}},
    author = {Charlwood, Jacques Derek and Tom{\'{a}}s, Erzelia V.E. and Bragan{\c{c}}a, Mauro and Cuamba, Nelson and Alifrangis, Michael and Stanton, Michelle},
    doi = {10.7717/peerj.1370},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Charlwood et al. - 2015 - Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique.pdf:pdf},
    issn = {2167-8359},
    journal = {PeerJ},
    keywords = {Bednet,Falciparum,Incidence,LLINs,Malaria,Plasmodium,Prevalence},
    month = {nov},
    pages = {e1370},
    publisher = {PeerJ Inc.},
    title = {{Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique}},
    url = {https://peerj.com/articles/1370},
    volume = {3},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • U. Mwingira, M. Chikawe, C. Uisso, I. Mremi, W. Lazarus, A. Malishee, M. Malecela, J. Fahy, M. Stanton, H. Mableson, and L. Kelly-Hope, “Micro-mapping distribution points, risk populations and treatment numbers to maximise coverage and impact of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,” in American society of tropical medicine and hygiene 64th annual meeting, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Mwingira2015,
    author = {Mwingira, Upendo and Chikawe, Maria and Uisso, Cecelia and Mremi, Irene and Lazarus, Wilfred and Malishee, Alpha and Malecela, Mwelecele and Fahy, Joan and Stanton, Michelle and Mableson, Hayley and Kelly-Hope, Louise},
    booktitle = {American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64th Annual Meeting},
    title = {{Micro-mapping distribution points, risk populations and treatment numbers to maximise coverage and impact of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania}},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, E. L. Smith, S. Martindale, S. Z. Mkwanda, and L. A. Kelly-Hope, “Exploring hydrocoele surgery accessibility and impact in a lymphatic filariasis endemic area of southern Malawi.,” Transactions of the royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. 109, iss. 4, pp. 252-61, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2015a,
    abstract = {BACKGROUND: Hydrocoele surgery is the recommended treatment for the common clinical manifestation of lymphatic filariasis in men. This study determined the geographical differences in surgery accessibility, and improvements in the quality of life of patients in Chikwawa district, Malawi.
    METHODS: Surgery records from Chikwawa District Hospital (CDH), between 2008 and 2013, were used to map surgery rates by village, spatial dependence by census enumeration area and relationship of distance (kilometres) to CDH. A subset of patients were selected to quantify and compare their physical and socio-economic well-being and level of disability pre- and post-surgery using a standardised questionnaire.
    RESULTS: A total of 476 hydrocoele surgical cases were identified with 260 cases geo-referenced and mapped. A significant negative relationship between village-level surgery rates and distance to CDH (r=-0.137; 95{\%} CI: -0.47 to -0.26) was found, and clusters of enumeration areas with high surgery rates identified around the CDH. Significant improvements in patients' ability to walk and work were found and the overall level of disability was reduced post-surgery.
    CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocoele surgery positively impacted on patients, improving their physical and socio-economic output. Surgical services need to scale-up and expand to reach cases that have less access to the best treatment currently available.},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Smith, Emma L and Martindale, Sarah and Mkwanda, Square Z and Kelly-Hope, Louise A},
    doi = {10.1093/trstmh/trv009},
    issn = {1878-3503},
    journal = {Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene},
    month = {apr},
    number = {4},
    pages = {252--61},
    pmid = {25673628},
    title = {{Exploring hydrocoele surgery accessibility and impact in a lymphatic filariasis endemic area of southern Malawi.}},
    url = {http://trstmh.oxfordjournals.org/content/109/4/252.short},
    volume = {109},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • J. C. Sousa-Figueiredo, M. C. Stanton, S. Katokele, M. Arinaitwe, M. Adriko, L. Balfour, M. Reiff, W. Lancaster, B. H. Noden, R. Bock, and R. J. Stothard, “Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Namibia: the first largescale protocol to formally include rapid diagnostic tests,” Plos neglected tropical diseases, vol. 9, iss. 7, p. e0003831, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Sousa-Figueiredo,
    author = {Sousa-Figueiredo, Jos{\'{e}} Carlos and Stanton, Michelle C and Katokele, Stark and Arinaitwe, Moses and Adriko, Moses and Balfour, Lexi and Reiff, Mark and Lancaster, Warren and Noden, Bruce H and Bock, Ronnie and Stothard, J Russell},
    journal = {PLoS neglected tropical diseases},
    number = {7},
    pages = {e0003831},
    title = {{Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in Namibia: the first largescale protocol to formally include rapid diagnostic tests}},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2015}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, S. Z. Mkwanda, A. Y. Debrah, L. Batsa, N. Biritwum, A. Hoerauf, M. Cliffe, A. Best, A. Molineux, and L. A. Kelly-Hope, “Developing a community-led SMS reporting tool for the rapid assessment of lymphatic filariasis morbidity burden: Case studies from Malawi and Ghana,” Bmc infectious diseases, vol. 15, iss. 214, 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2015,
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C. and Mkwanda, Square Z. and Debrah, Alexander Y. and Batsa, Linda and Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo and Hoerauf, Achim and Cliffe, Matthew and Best, Abigail and Molineux, Andrew and Kelly-Hope, Louise A.},
    doi = {10.1186/s12879-015-0946-4},
    journal = {BMC infectious diseases},
    number = {214},
    title = {{Developing a community-led SMS reporting tool for the rapid assessment of lymphatic filariasis morbidity burden: Case studies from Malawi and Ghana}},
    volume = {15},
    year = {2015}
    }

2014

  • [DOI] C. {Pérez García-Pando}, M. C. Stanton, P. J. Diggle, S. Trzaska, R. L. Miller, J. P. Perlwitz, J. M. Baldasano, E. Cuevas, P. Ceccato, P. Yaka, and M. C. Thomson, “Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger,” Environmental health perspectives, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{PerezGarcia-Pando2014,
    author = {{P{\'{e}}rez Garc{\'{i}}a-Pando}, Carlos and Stanton, Michelle C. and Diggle, Peter J. and Trzaska, Sylwia and Miller, Ron L. and Perlwitz, Jan P. and Baldasano, Jos{\'{e}} Mar{\'{i}}a and Cuevas, Emilio and Ceccato, Pietro and Yaka, Pascal and Thomson, Madeleine C.},
    doi = {10.1289/ehp.1306640},
    issn = {0091-6765},
    journal = {Environmental Health Perspectives},
    month = {mar},
    title = {{Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger}},
    url = {http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306640/},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] H. Poole, D. J. Terlouw, A. Naunje, K. Mzembe, M. Stanton, M. Betson, D. G. Lalloo, and R. J. Stothard, “Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.,” Parasites \&\ vectors, vol. 7, iss. 1, p. 153, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Poole2014,
    abstract = {BACKGROUND: To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important.
    METHODS: In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays.
    RESULTS: In total, 49.5{\{}{\%}{\}} (CI95 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5{\{}{\%}{\}} (CI95 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75{\{}{\%}{\}} in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7{\{}{\%}{\}} (CI95 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1{\{}{\%}{\}} (CI95 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many ({\{}{\~{}}{\}}25{\{}{\%}{\}}) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria.
    CONCLUSIONS: Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi.},
    author = {Poole, Helen and Terlouw, Diane J and Naunje, Andrew and Mzembe, Kondwani and Stanton, Michelle and Betson, Martha and Lalloo, David G and Stothard, J Russell},
    doi = {10.1186/1756-3305-7-153},
    issn = {1756-3305},
    journal = {Parasites {\{}{\&}{\}} vectors},
    month = {apr},
    number = {1},
    pages = {153},
    pmid = {24690282},
    title = {{Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.}},
    url = {http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/153},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] C. García-Pando, M. C. Thomson, M. C. Stanton, P. J. Diggle, T. Hopson, R. Pandya, R. L. Miller, and S. Hugonnet, “Meningitis and climate: from science to practice,” Earth perspectives, vol. 1, iss. 1, p. 14, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Garcia-Pando2014,
    abstract = {Meningococcal meningitis is a climate sensitive infectious disease. The regional extent of the Meningitis Belt in Africa, where the majority of epidemics occur, was originally defined by Lapeysonnie in the 1960s. A combination of climatic and environmental conditions and biological and social factors have been associated to the spatial and temporal patterns of epidemics observed since the disease first emerged in West Africa over a century ago. However, there is still a lack of knowledge and data that would allow disentangling the relative effects of the diverse risk factors upon epidemics. The Meningitis Environmental Risk Information Technologies Initiative (MERIT), a collaborative research-to-practice consortium, seeks to inform national and regional prevention and control strategies across the African Meningitis Belt through the provision of new data and tools that better determine risk factors. In particular MERIT seeks to consolidate a body of knowledge that provides evidence of the contribution of climatic and environmental factors to seasonal and year-to-year variations in meningococcal meningitis incidence at both district and national scales. Here we review recent research and practice seeking to provide useful information for the epidemic response strategy of National Ministries of Health in the Meningitis Belt of Africa. In particular the research and derived tools described in this paper have focused at “getting science into policy and practice” by engaging with practitioner communities under the umbrella of MERIT to ensure the relevance of their work to operational decision-making. We limit our focus to that of reactive vaccination for meningococcal meningitis. Important but external to our discussion is the development and implementation of the new conjugate vaccine, which specifically targets meningococcus A.},
    author = {Garc{\'{i}}a-Pando, Carlos and Thomson, Madeleine C and Stanton, Michelle C and Diggle, Peter J and Hopson, Thomas and Pandya, Rajul and Miller, Ron L and Hugonnet, St{\'{e}}phane},
    doi = {10.1186/2194-6434-1-14},
    issn = {2194-6434},
    journal = {Earth Perspectives},
    month = {jun},
    number = {1},
    pages = {14},
    publisher = {Springer},
    title = {{Meningitis and climate: from science to practice}},
    url = {http://www.earth-perspectives.com/content/1/1/14},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] E. L. Smith, S. Z. Mkwanda, S. Martindale, L. A. Kelly-Hope, and M. C. Stanton, “Lymphatic filariasis morbidity mapping: a comprehensive examination of lymphoedema burden in Chikwawa district, Malawi.,” Transactions of the royal society of tropical medicine and hygiene, vol. 108, iss. 12, pp. 751-8, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Smith2014,
    abstract = {BACKGROUND: Managing lymphatic filariasis (LF) morbidity and reducing disability is one of the two primary goals of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis. However, in order to achieve this, the geographical distribution of LF morbidity needs to be better estimated.
    METHODS: All cases of lymphoedema within a single health centre catchment area (pop. 42 000) in the southern region of Malawi were examined. Maps of lymphoedema burden were produced and trends in patient demographics, severity of lymphoedema (Dreyer staging) and health-seeking behaviour were explored. The number of lymphoedema cases was compared with records maintained by the Ministry of Health, Malawi.
    RESULTS: A total of 69 lymphoedema cases were identified (32 per 10 000 population), of which 48 (70{\%}) were female and 21 (30{\%}) male. The majority of cases (51/69) had Dreyer stage 2-3, and almost all (65/69) had experienced acute attacks as a result of their lymphoedema. This burden was much greater than that estimated by Ministry of Health (33 cases).
    CONCLUSIONS: Current case detection methods underestimate the burden of lymphoedema in Malawi. There is a continued need to develop new LF morbidity identification and surveillance approaches to ensure that future morbidity management strategies are effectively targeted.},
    author = {Smith, Emma L and Mkwanda, Square Z and Martindale, Sarah and Kelly-Hope, Louise A and Stanton, Michelle C},
    doi = {10.1093/trstmh/tru150},
    issn = {1878-3503},
    journal = {Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene},
    month = {dec},
    number = {12},
    pages = {751--8},
    pmid = {25282001},
    title = {{Lymphatic filariasis morbidity mapping: a comprehensive examination of lymphoedema burden in Chikwawa district, Malawi.}},
    url = {http://trstmh.oxfordjournals.org/content/108/12/751.full},
    volume = {108},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] M. Coleman, M. H. Al-Zahrani, M. Coleman, J. Hemingway, A. Omar, M. C. Stanton, E. K. Thomsen, A. A. Alsheikh, R. F. Alhakeem, P. J. McCall, A. A. A. Rabeeah, and Z. A. Memish, “A Country on the Verge of Malaria Elimination – The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.,” Plos one, vol. 9, iss. 9, p. e105980, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Coleman2014,
    abstract = {Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8{\%} between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population) until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015.},
    author = {Coleman, Michael and Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H and Coleman, Marlize and Hemingway, Janet and Omar, Abdiasiis and Stanton, Michelle C and Thomsen, Eddie K and Alsheikh, Adel A and Alhakeem, Raafat F and McCall, Phillip J and Rabeeah, Abdullah A Al and Memish, Ziad A},
    doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0105980},
    editor = {Keating, Joseph A.},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Coleman et al. - 2014 - A Country on the Verge of Malaria Elimination - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(2).pdf:pdf},
    issn = {1932-6203},
    journal = {PloS one},
    keywords = {Animals,Arthropod vectors,Arthropoda,Biology and life sciences,Disease vectors,Epidemiology,Insect vectors,Insects,Invertebrates,Medicine and health sciences,Mosquitoes,Organisms,Research Article},
    month = {jan},
    number = {9},
    pages = {e105980},
    pmid = {25250619},
    publisher = {Public Library of Science},
    title = {{A Country on the Verge of Malaria Elimination - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.}},
    url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105980},
    volume = {9},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] L. A. Kelly-Hope, J. Cano, M. C. Stanton, M. J. Bockarie, and D. H. Molyneux, “Innovative tools for assessing risks for severe adverse events in areas of overlapping Loa loa and other filarial distributions: the application of micro-stratification mapping.,” Parasites & vectors, vol. 7, iss. 1, p. 307, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Kelly-Hope2014,
    abstract = {BACKGROUND: The wide distribution of Loa loa infection (loiasis) throughout the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a major obstacle to the plans to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) because the standard drug regime is dependent on ivermectin, which cannot be used in co-endemic areas due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs). A better understanding of the micro-epidemiology, overlapping low and high risk areas, and how they relate to SAEs is critical to ensure safe and effective treatment.
    FINDINGS: Based on published data from the Bas Congo Province in DRC, this study used geographical information systems (GIS) to re-map and analyse onchocerciasis and loiasis prevalence ({\textless}20{\%}, 20 to 40{\%}, {\textgreater}40{\%}) at 144 sites in relation to health district areas reporting SAEs. The new maps highlighted the contrasting patterns of the high prevalence sites, and significant geographical overlap between low onchocerciasis and high loiasis sites. Statistical analyses found that sites with medium to high loiasis prevalence were 10 to 16 times more likely to be in a SAE area than those with low prevalence of loiasis. Sites where both onchocerciasis and loiasis prevalence was {\textgreater}20{\%} were also associated with SAE areas.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collaborative efforts between the national onchocerciasis and LF programmes are critical as plans to scale interventions are moving forward and thus, alternative strategies needed in loiasis co-endemic areas which may include the new L. loa test and treat strategy using the Cellscope, or interventions such as integrated vector management, or anti Wolbachia therapy using doxycycline.},
    author = {Kelly-Hope, Louise A and Cano, Jorge and Stanton, Michelle C and Bockarie, Moses J and Molyneux, David H},
    doi = {10.1186/1756-3305-7-307},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Kelly-Hope et al. - 2014 - Innovative tools for assessing risks for severe adverse events in areas of overlapping Loa loa and other f(2).pdf:pdf},
    issn = {1756-3305},
    journal = {Parasites {\&} vectors},
    month = {jan},
    number = {1},
    pages = {307},
    pmid = {24992829},
    title = {{Innovative tools for assessing risks for severe adverse events in areas of overlapping Loa loa and other filarial distributions: the application of micro-stratification mapping.}},
    url = {http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/307},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] H. Poole, D. J. Terlouw, A. Naunje, K. Mzembe, M. Stanton, M. Betson, D. G. Lalloo, and R. J. Stothard, “Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.,” Parasites & vectors, vol. 7, iss. 1, p. 153, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Poole2014,
    abstract = {BACKGROUND: To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important.
    METHODS: In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays.
    RESULTS: In total, 49.5{\%} (CI95 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5{\%} (CI95 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75{\%} in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7{\%} (CI95 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1{\%} (CI95 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many ({\~{}}25{\%}) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria.
    CONCLUSIONS: Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi.},
    author = {Poole, Helen and Terlouw, Diane J and Naunje, Andrew and Mzembe, Kondwani and Stanton, Michelle and Betson, Martha and Lalloo, David G and Stothard, J Russell},
    doi = {10.1186/1756-3305-7-153},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Poole et al. - 2014 - Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on charac(2).pdf:pdf},
    issn = {1756-3305},
    journal = {Parasites {\&} vectors},
    month = {apr},
    number = {1},
    pages = {153},
    pmid = {24690282},
    title = {{Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.}},
    url = {http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/153},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, S. Mkwanda, T. Mzilahowa, M. J. Bockarie, and L. A. Kelly-Hope, “Quantifying filariasis and malaria control activities in relation to lymphatic filariasis elimination: a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for Malawi.,” Tropical medicine & international health : tm & ih, vol. 19, iss. 2, pp. 224-35, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2014,
    abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To quantify the geographical extent of filariasis and malaria control interventions impacting lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Malawi and to produce a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for prioritising surveillance and intervention strategies. METHODS: Interventions included mass drug administration (MDA) for LF and onchocerciasis, and bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria. District and subdistrict-level data were obtained from the Ministry of Health in Malawi, the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and President's Malaria Initiative reports. Single intervention scores were calculated for each variable based on population coverage thresholds, and these were combined in a weighted sum to form a multiple intervention score, which was then used to produce maps, that is MISMs. Districts were further classified into four groups based on the combination of their baseline LF prevalence and multiple intervention score. RESULTS: The district- and subdistrict-level MISMs highlighted specific areas that have received high and low coverage of LF-impacting interventions. High coverage areas included the LF-onchocerciasis endemic areas in the southern region of the country and areas along the shores of Lake Malawi, where malaria vector control had been prioritised. Three districts with high baseline LF prevalence measures but low coverage of multiple interventions were identified and considered to be most at risk of ongoing transmission or re-emergence. CONCLUSIONS: These maps and district classifications will be used by LF programme managers to identify and target high-risk areas that may not have received adequate LF-impacting interventions to interrupt the transmission of the disease.},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Mkwanda, Square and Mzilahowa, Themba and Bockarie, Moses J and Kelly-Hope, Louise A},
    doi = {10.1111/tmi.12266},
    issn = {1365-3156},
    journal = {Tropical medicine {\&} international health : TM {\&} IH},
    month = {jan},
    number = {2},
    pages = {224--35},
    pmid = {24438053},
    title = {{Quantifying filariasis and malaria control activities in relation to lymphatic filariasis elimination: a multiple intervention score map (MISM) for Malawi.}},
    volume = {19},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, Agier, Lydiane, B. M. Taylor, and P. J. Diggle, “Towards realtime spatiotemporal prediction of district level meningitis incidence in sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of the royal statistical society: series a (statistics in society), vol. 177, pp. 661-678, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2013a,
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C. and Agier, and Lydiane and Taylor, Benjamin M. and Diggle, Peter J.},
    doi = {10.1111/rssa.12033},
    issn = {09641998},
    journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society)},
    month = {oct},
    pages = {661--678},
    title = {{Towards realtime spatiotemporal prediction of district level meningitis incidence in sub-Saharan Africa}},
    url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/rssa.12033},
    volume = {177},
    year = {2014}
    }

2013

  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, M. J. Bockarie, and L. a Kelly-Hope, “Geographical Factors Affecting Bed Net Ownership, a Tool for the Elimination of Anopheles-Transmitted Lymphatic Filariasis in Hard-to-Reach Communities.,” Plos one, vol. 8, iss. 1, p. e53755, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2013,
    abstract = {Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN)), and ITN density (ITNs per person) for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30{\{}{\%}{\}}) and ITN (9{\{}{\%}{\}}) coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p{\{}{\textless}{\}}0.01), and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = -0.28, -0.30 respectively, p{\{}{\textless}{\}}0.0001). Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures), distance to main rivers (any bed net only) and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only). Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95{\{}{\%}{\}} CI: 3.67-7.70). This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF and malaria bed net distribution campaigns as part of an integrated vector management strategy.},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Bockarie, Moses J and Kelly-Hope, Louise a},
    doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0053755},
    issn = {1932-6203},
    journal = {PloS one},
    month = {jan},
    number = {1},
    pages = {e53755},
    pmid = {23308281},
    title = {{Geographical Factors Affecting Bed Net Ownership, a Tool for the Elimination of Anopheles-Transmitted Lymphatic Filariasis in Hard-to-Reach Communities.}},
    url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3538722{\%}7B{\&}{\%}7Dtool=pmcentrez{\%}7B{\&}{\%}7Drendertype=abstract},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2013}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton and P. J. Diggle, “Geostatistical analysis of binomial data: generalised linear or transformed Gaussian modelling?,” Environmetrics, vol. 24, iss. 3, pp. 158-171, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2013c,
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C. and Diggle, Peter J.},
    doi = {10.1002/env.2205},
    issn = {11804009},
    journal = {Environmetrics},
    month = {may},
    number = {3},
    pages = {158--171},
    title = {{Geostatistical analysis of binomial data: generalised linear or transformed Gaussian modelling?}},
    url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/env.2205},
    volume = {24},
    year = {2013}
    }
  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, D. H. Molyneux, D. Kyelem, R. W. Bougma, B. G. Koudou, and L. A. Kelly-Hope, “Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.,” Geospatial health, vol. 8, iss. 1, pp. 159-73, 2013.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2013b,
    abstract = {Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease that is endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa, infecting approximately 40 million people. In Burkina Faso, mass drug administration (MDA) for LF with ivermectin and albendazole has been ongoing since 2001, and by 2006 all endemic health districts were receiving MDA with a therapeutic coverage of at least 65{\%}. As MDA activities scale down, the focus is now on targeting areas where LF transmission persists with alternative elimination strategies. This study explored the relationship between village-level, baseline LF prevalence data collected in 2000 with publicly available meteorological, environmental and demographic variables in order to determine the factors that influence the geographical distribution of the disease. A fitted multiple logistic regression model indicated that the length of the rainy season, variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and population density were significantly positively associated with LF prevalence, whereas total annual rainfall, average June-September temperature, mean NDVI, elevation and the area of cotton crops were significantly negatively associated. This model was used to produce a baseline LF risk map for Burkina Faso. An extended model which incorporated potential socio-demographic risk factors also indicated a significant positive relationship between LF prevalence and wealth. In overlaying the baseline LF risk map with the number of MDA rounds, plus an insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership measure, the central southern area of the country was highlighted as an area where baseline LF prevalence was high and ITN coverage relatively low ({\textless}50{\%}), while at least 10 rounds of MDA had been undertaken, suggesting that more concentrated efforts will be needed to eliminate the disease in these areas.},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Molyneux, David H and Kyelem, Dominique and Bougma, Roland W and Koudou, Benjamin G and Kelly-Hope, Louise A},
    doi = {10.4081/gh.2013.63},
    issn = {1970-7096},
    journal = {Geospatial health},
    keywords = {Agriculture,Albendazole,Albendazole: therapeutic use,Anthelmintics,Anthelmintics: therapeutic use,Burkina Faso,Burkina Faso: epidemiology,Climate,Elephantiasis, Filarial,Elephantiasis, Filarial: drug therapy,Elephantiasis, Filarial: epidemiology,Female,Humans,Ivermectin,Ivermectin: therapeutic use,Male,Population Density,Prevalence,Remote Sensing Technology,Risk Factors,Socioeconomic Factors},
    month = {nov},
    number = {1},
    pages = {159--73},
    pmid = {24258892},
    title = {{Baseline drivers of lymphatic filariasis in Burkina Faso.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24258892},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2013}
    }

2012

  • [DOI] L. Agier, M. Stanton, G. Soga, and P. J. Diggle, “A multi-state spatio-temporal Markov model for categorized incidence of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa.,” Epidemiology and infection, pp. 1-8, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Agier2012,
    abstract = {SUMMARY Meningococcal meningitis is a major public health problem in the African Belt. Despite the obvious seasonality of epidemics, the factors driving them are still poorly understood. Here, we provide a first attempt to predict epidemics at the spatio-temporal scale required for in-year response, using a purely empirical approach. District-level weekly incidence rates for Niger (1986-2007) were discretized into latent, alert and epidemic states according to pre-specified epidemiological thresholds. We modelled the probabilities of transition between states, accounting for seasonality and spatio-temporal dependence. One-week-ahead predictions for entering the epidemic state were generated with specificity and negative predictive value {\{}{\textgreater}{\}}99{\{}{\%}{\}}, sensitivity and positive predictive value {\{}{\textgreater}{\}}72{\{}{\%}{\}}. On the annual scale, we predict the first entry of a district into the epidemic state with sensitivity 65{\{}{\textperiodcentered}{\}}0{\{}{\%}{\}}, positive predictive value 49{\{}{\textperiodcentered}{\}}0{\{}{\%}{\}}, and an average time gained of 4{\{}{\textperiodcentered}{\}}6 weeks. These results could inform decisions on preparatory actions.},
    author = {Agier, L and Stanton, M and Soga, G and Diggle, P J},
    doi = {10.1017/S0950268812001926},
    issn = {1469-4409},
    journal = {Epidemiology and infection},
    keywords = {infectious disease surveillance,markov multinomial model,meningitis,spatio-temporal,statistics,sub-saharan africa},
    month = {sep},
    pages = {1--8},
    pmid = {22995184},
    title = {{A multi-state spatio-temporal Markov model for categorized incidence of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995184},
    year = {2012}
    }
  • [DOI] K. A. Mohammed, R. M. Deb, M. C. Stanton, and D. H. Molyneux, “Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis – a rapid assessment methodology to assess impact.,” Parasites & vectors, vol. 5, p. 299, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Mohammed2012,
    abstract = {ABSTRACT:},
    author = {Mohammed, Khalfan A and Deb, Rinki M and Stanton, Michelle C and Molyneux, David H},
    doi = {10.1186/1756-3305-5-299},
    file = {:C$\backslash$:/Users/michelle.stanton/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Mohammed et al. - 2012 - Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphati(2).pdf:pdf},
    issn = {1756-3305},
    journal = {Parasites {\&} vectors},
    month = {jan},
    pages = {299},
    pmid = {23259465},
    title = {{Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis - a rapid assessment methodology to assess impact.}},
    url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3543323{\&}tool=pmcentrez{\&}rendertype=abstract},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2012}
    }

2011

  • [DOI] M. C. Stanton, D. Taylor-Robinson, D. Harris, F. Paize, N. Makwana, S. J. Hackett, P. B. Baines, A. F. I. Riordan, O. Marzouk, A. P. J. Thomson, P. J. Diggle, A. C. Hart, and E. D. Carrol, “Meningococcal disease in children in Merseyside, England: a 31 year descriptive study.,” Plos one, vol. 6, iss. 10, p. e25957, 2011.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Stanton2011,
    abstract = {Meningococcal disease (MCD) is the leading infectious cause of death in early childhood in the United Kingdom, making it a public health priority. MCD most commonly presents as meningococcal meningitis (MM), septicaemia (MS), or as a combination of the two syndromes (MM/MS). We describe the changing epidemiology and clinical presentation of MCD, and explore associations with socioeconomic status and other risk factors. A hospital-based study of children admitted to a tertiary children's centre, Alder Hey Children's Foundation Trust, with MCD, was undertaken between 1977 to 2007 (n = 1157). Demographics, clinical presentations, microbiological confirmation and measures of deprivation were described. The majority of cases occurred in the 1-4 year age group and there was a dramatic fall in serogroup C cases observed with the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine. The proportion of MS cases increased over the study period, from 11{\{}{\%}{\}} in the first quarter to 35{\{}{\%}{\}} in the final quarter. Presentation with MS (compared to MM) and serogroup C disease (compared to serogroup B) were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for mortality, with odds ratios of 3.5 (95{\{}{\%}{\}} CI 1.18 to 10.08) and 2.18 (95{\{}{\%}{\}} CI 1.26 to 3.80) respectively. Cases admitted to Alder Hey were from a relatively more deprived population (mean Townsend score 1.25, 95{\{}{\%}{\}} CI 1.09 to 1.41) than the Merseyside reference population. Our findings represent one of the largest single-centre studies of MCD. The presentation of MS is confirmed to be a risk factor of mortality from MCD. Our study supports the association between social deprivation and MCD.},
    author = {Stanton, Michelle C and Taylor-Robinson, David and Harris, David and Paize, Fauzia and Makwana, Nick and Hackett, Scott J and Baines, Paul B and Riordan, F Andrew I and Marzouk, Omnia and Thomson, Alistair P J and Diggle, Peter J and Hart, C Anthony and Carrol, Enitan D},
    doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0025957},
    issn = {1932-6203},
    journal = {PloS one},
    keywords = {Adolescent,Age Distribution,Child,England,England: epidemiology,Female,Hospitals,Hospitals: statistics {\{}{\&}{\}} numerical data,Humans,Infant,Logistic Models,Male,Meningococcal Infections,Meningococcal Infections: diagnosis,Meningococcal Infections: epidemiology,Meningococcal Infections: mortality,Preschool,Socioeconomic Factors},
    month = {jan},
    number = {10},
    pages = {e25957},
    pmid = {22016791},
    title = {{Meningococcal disease in children in Merseyside, England: a 31 year descriptive study.}},
    url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3189236{\%}7B{\&}{\%}7Dtool=pmcentrez{\%}7B{\&}{\%}7Drendertype=abstract},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2011}
    }

2010

  • [DOI] P. J. Diggle, Y. Guan, A. C. Hart, F. Paize, and M. Stanton, “Estimating Individual-Level Risk in Spatial Epidemiology Using Spatially Aggregated Information on the Population at Risk.,” Journal of the american statistical association, vol. 105, iss. 492, pp. 1394-1402, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Diggle2010,
    abstract = {We propose a novel alternative to case-control sampling for the estimation of individual-level risk in spatial epidemiology. Our approach uses weighted estimating equations to estimate regression parameters in the intensity function of an inhomogeneous spatial point process, when information on risk-factors is available at the individual level for cases, but only at a spatially aggregated level for the population at risk. We develop data-driven methods to select the weights used in the estimating equations and show through simulation that the choice of weights can have a major impact on efficiency of estimation. We develop a formal test to detect non-Poisson behavior in the underlying point process and assess the performance of the test using simulations of Poisson and Poisson cluster point processes. We apply our methods to data on the spatial distribution of childhood meningococcal disease cases in Merseyside, U.K. between 1981 and 2007.},
    author = {Diggle, Peter J and Guan, Yongtao and Hart, Anthony C and Paize, Fauzia and Stanton, Michelle},
    doi = {10.1198/jasa.2010.ap09323},
    issn = {0162-1459},
    journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
    keywords = {Estimating equations,Inhomogeneous spatial-point,estimating equations,inhomogeneous spatial-point processes,meningococcal disease},
    month = {jan},
    number = {492},
    pages = {1394--1402},
    pmid = {22798701},
    title = {{Estimating Individual-Level Risk in Spatial Epidemiology Using Spatially Aggregated Information on the Population at Risk.}},
    url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3395722{\%}7B{\&}{\%}7Dtool=pmcentrez{\%}7B{\&}{\%}7Drendertype=abstract},
    volume = {105},
    year = {2010}
    }